Satisfying Heterogeneous User Needs via Innovation Toolkits: The Case of Apache Security Software

Franke, Nikolaus and von Hippel, Eric (2003) Satisfying Heterogeneous User Needs via Innovation Toolkits: The Case of Apache Security Software. Research Policy, 32 (7). pp. 1199-1215. ISSN 0048-7333


Download (482kB)


User needs for a given product type can be quite heterogeneous. Segmenting the market and providing solutions for average user needs in each segment is a partial answer that will typically leave many dissatisfied - some seriously so. We hypothesize that providing users with "toolkits for user innovation" to enable them to more easily design customized products for themselves will increase user satisfaction under these conditions. We test this hypothesis via an empirical study of Apache security software - "open source" software that is designed to be modifiable by skilled users. We find that heterogeneity of need is high, and that many Apache users are dissatisfied with standard security functionality on offer. We also find that users creating their own software modifications are significantly more satisfied than are non-innovating users. We conclude by suggesting that the "toolkits for user innovation" approach to enhancing user satisfaction might be generally applicable to markets characterized by heterogeneous user needs. (authors' abstract)

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: To see the final version of this paper please visit the publisher's website. Access to the published version may require a subscription.
Keywords: toolkits / user innovation / need heterogeneity / open source software
Divisions: Departments > Strategy and Innovation > Entrepreneurship und Innovation > Franke
Version of the Document: Accepted for Publication
Variance from Published Version: None
Depositing User: Dissertation Administrator
Date Deposited: 17 May 2011 11:03
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2015 17:45


View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics