A service provided by the WU Library and the WU IT-Services

A knowledge perspective on needs to enhance organizational learning

Kragulj, Florian (2017) A knowledge perspective on needs to enhance organizational learning. PhD thesis, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.

Download (3870Kb) | Preview


Organizational learning causes organizational change. Different descriptive models have been proposed, but little research on variables influencing these processes has been done. Needs govern our behavior and motivate our acting. It has been shown that their identification and satisfaction effect value-creating and knowledge-intensive activities, such as innovation processes, strategy development, and product design. However, needs are usually implicitly anchored in organizations and people can hardly articulate them. Despite the fact that a focus on needs does not prescribe any concrete strategy, but extends opportunities to act, an initial consideration of needs often lacks. Consequently, their role as an influencing variable for organizational learning has not been investigated yet. Addressing this gap, this dissertation explores the nature of needs and how they can enhance organizational learning processes. It introduces a novel theory on needs for organizational practice which emphasizes the potential of a focus on needs. It argues why considering needs is beneficial for learning initiatives, such as vision or strategy development, in which various expectations which presumably emerge from shared needs have to be combined. Shared needs within a social system can trigger organizational learning and facilitate the design of new consensual satisfaction strategies (satisfiers). The theory allows for understanding the motivational forces of organizational learning and exploiting the postulated one-to-many relation between needs and satisfiers. Moreover, it points at influencing variables for the organizational transition from needs to need satisfaction and illustrates that by a knowledge perspective resulting in the concept of "need-based solution knowledge". This knowledge enables people to propose viable satisfiers in organizations. We introduce the methodological framework "Bewextra" that targets at the capacity to identify needs in organizations. It rests upon theories from various scientific fields and utilizes "learning from an envisioned future" as a core method. This enables to literally envision a desired future scenario in which all needs are intuitively fulfilled, and thereby allows for the creation of knowledge about needs. The research follows the action research paradigm which proposes a combinational interplay between rational and empirical research processes, in which various (qualitative) research methods are used. Besides theoretical considerations, the dissertation reports about four research projects in which the theories and methods were applied, reflected, and refined. More specifically, it presents how "Bewextra" was implemented and adjusted and demonstrates that a combination of conventional learning from the past and "learning from an envisioned future" enhances the outcome of organizational learning in various domains. Moreover, it investigates the differences between organizational strategies, that emerge with reference to needs, and strategies, that are developed without explicitly considering needs.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: organizational learning; organisational learning; knowledge management; knowledge; capacity to act; innovation; need; needs; satisfier; satisfiers; action research; repertory grid; paradigm-relatedness framework
Divisions: Departments > Informationsverarbeitung u Prozessmanag. > Informationswirtschaft
Depositing User: Florian Kragulj
Date Deposited: 16 May 2017 11:22
Last Modified: 16 May 2017 11:27
URI: http://epub.wu.ac.at/id/eprint/5556


Altschuld, J. W. and Watkins, R. (2014). A Primer on Needs Assessment: More Than 40 Years of Research and Practice. New Directions for Evaluation, (114):5-18.

Argote, L. and Miron-Spektor, E. (2011). Organizational Learning: From Experience to Knowledge. Organization Science, 22(5):1123-1137.

Argyris, C., Putnam, R., and MacLain-Smith, D. (1982). Action Science: Concepts, Methods and Skills for Research and Intervention. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1996). Organizational Learning II. Addison-Wesley, Reading.

Arhem, P. and Liljenström, H. (1997). On the coevolution of cognition and consciousness. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 187(4):601-612.

Asadi-Lari, M., Packham, C., and Gray, D. (2003). Need for redefining needs. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1(34):34.

Atance, C. M. and O'Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(12):533-539.

Baldwin, M. (2012). Participatory Action Research. In Gray, M., Midgley, J., and Webb, S. A., editors, The SAGE Handbook of Social Work, pages 234-243. SAGE, London.

Baskerville, R. L. and Wood-Harper, A. T. (1996). A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. Journal of Information Technology, 11(3):235-246.

Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature. A Necessary Unity. E. P. Dutton, New York.

Bateson, G. (1987). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Jason Aronson Inc., Northvale, London.

Baxter, D. I., Goffin, K., and Szwejczewski, M. (2014). The repertory grid technique as a customer insight method. Research Technology Management, 57(4):35-42.

Bayus, B. L. (2008). Understanding Customer Needs. In Shane, S., editor, Handbook of Technology and Innovation Management, pages 115-142. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Berger, P. L. and Luckmann, T. (1981). The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

Blichfeldt, B. S. (2006). Creating a Wider Audeince for Action Research: Learning from Case-Study Research. Journal of Research Practice, 2(1):1-12.

Bradshaw, J. (1972). A taxonomy of social need. In McLachlan, G., editor, Problems and progress in medical care, pages 69-82. Oxford University Press, London.

Bruner, J. S. (1995). Acts of meaning. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D., and Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research? Action Research, 1(1):9-28.

Burton, J. W. (1990). Conflict: Resolution and Provention. St. Martin's Press, New York.

Carlgren, L. (2013). Identifying latent needs: towards a competence perspective on attractive quality creation. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 24(11-12):1347-1363.

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing Grounded Theory. Sage, London, 2nd edition.

Checkland, P. and Holwell, S. (1998). Action Research: Its Nature and Validity. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 11(1):9-21.

Chiva, R. and Alegre, J. (2005). Organizational Learning and Organizational Knowledge: Towards the Integration of Two Approaches. Management Learning, 36(1):49-68.

Chua, A. (2002). The influence of social interaction on knowledge creation. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(4):375-392.

Cohen, M. and Sproul, L. (1991). Editors' introduction. Organization Science, 2(1):1-3.

Culyer, A. (1998). Need - is a consensus possible? Journal of Medical Ethics, 24:77-80.

Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. Elsevier Inc., Burlington/Oxford.

Davenport, T., De Long, D., and Beers, M. (1998). Successful Knowledge Management Projects. Sloan Management Review, 39(2):43-57.

Davis, B. (1997). Listening for Differences: An Evolving Conception of Mathematics Teaching. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(3):355-376.

Dean, D., Hender, J., and Rodgers, T. (2006). Identifying Quality, Novel, and Creative Ideas: Constructs and Scales for Idea Evaluation. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 7(10):646-699.

Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "What" and "Why" of Goal Pursuits : Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4):227-268.

Denzin, N. K. (2010). Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(6):419-427.

Doyal, L. and Gough, I. (1991). A Theory of Human Need. Guilford Press, New York.

Drakopoulos, S. A. and Karayiannis, A. D. (2004). The Historical Development of Hierarchical Behavior in Economic Thought. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 26(3):363-378.

Drucker, P. F. (1993). Post-Capitalist Society. HarperCollins, New York.

Easterby-Smith, M., Crossan, M., and Nicolini, D. (2000). Organizational Learning: Debates Past, Present and Future. Journal of Management Studies, 37(6):783-796.

Eden, C. and Huxham, C. (1996a). Action Research for Management Research. British Journal of Management, 7:75-86.

Eden, C. and Huxham, C. (1996b). Action research for the study of organizations. In Clegg, S., Hardy, C., and Nord, W., editors, The Handbook of Organization Studies. Sage, Beverly Hills.

Emery, P. (1997). Knowledge management. Inform, 11(10).

Ericson, A., Bertoni, M., and Larsson, T. (2009). Needs and requirements - how TRIZ may be applied in product-service development. In 2nd Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management, Göteborg.

Evans, J. R. and Linsday, W. M. (1999). The Management and Control of Quality. West Publishing Company, St. Paul, 4th edition.

Firestone, J. M. and McElroy, M. W. (2004). Organizational Learning and Knowledge Man- agement: The Relationship. The Learning Organization, 11(2):177-184.

Flood, R. L. (1993). Beyond TQM. John Wiley & Sons, London.

Gadamer, H.-G. (2006). Truth and method. Continuum, London, 2nd edition.

Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine Pub. Co., Chicago.

Goffin, K. and Lemke, F. (2004). Uncovering your customer's hidden needs. European Business Forum, 18:45-47.

Goffin, K., Lemke, F., and Koners, U. (2010). Identifying Hidden Needs. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Grant, R. M. (1996). Towards a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 12:109-122.

Greenwood, D. and Levon, M. (2007). Introduction to action research: Social research for social change. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, 2nd edition.

Hamilton, L. A. (2003). The Political Philosophy of Needs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hassenzahl, M. and Wessler, R. (2000). Capturing Design Space From a User Perspective: The Repertory Grid Technique Revisited. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12(3&4):441-459.

Hedberg, B. (1981). How Organizations Learn and Unlearn. In Nystrom, P. C. and Starbuck, W. H., editors, Handbook of Organizational Design, pages 3-27. Oxford University Press, New York.

Hemmecke, J. (2012). Repertory Grids als Methode zum Explizieren impliziten Wissens in Organisationen. PhD thesis, University of Vienna.

Hull, C. (1943). Principles of behavior: an introduction to behavior theory. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Hult, M. and Lennung, S. (1980). Towards a Definition of Action Research: A Note and Bibliography. Journal of Management Studies, 17(2):241-250.

Ibert, O. (2007). Towards a Geography of Knowledge Creation: The Ambivalences between "Knowledge as an Object" and "Knowing in Practice". Regional Studies, 41(1):103-114.

John, L. K., Loewenstein, G., and Prelec, D. (2012). Measuring the Prevalence of Questionable Research Practices With Incentives for Truth Telling. Psychological Science, 23(5):524-532.

Jost, P.-J. (2014). The Economics of Motivation and Organization. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham.

Kaiser, A., Feldhusen, B., and Fordinal, B. (2013). Vision development as a knowledge creating process. In Sprague, R. H., editor, 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pages 3593-3602, Los Alamitos. IEEE Computer Society Press.

Kaiser, A. and Fordinal, B. (2010). Creating a ba for generating self-transcending knowledge. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(6):928-942.

Kaiser, A., Fordinal, B., and Kragulj, F. (2014). Creation of Need Knowledge in Organizations: An Abductive Framework. In Sprague, R. H., editor, 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pages 3499-3508, Los Alamitos. IEEE Computer Society Press.

Kolb, D. A. (2015). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Devel- opment. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, 2nd edition.

Konno, N., Nonaka, I., and Ogilvy, J. (2014). The Mind of the Scenario Thinker. World Futures, 70:37-41.

Kragulj, F. (2014a). Creating Knowledge of Need: A Methodological Framework for its Ab- ductive Inference. Master thesis, University of Vienna.

Kragulj, F. (2014b). Interacting with the envisioned future as a constructivist approach to learning. Constructivist Foundations, 9(3):439-440.

Kvale, S. (1995). The social construct of validity. Qualitative Inquiry, 1:19-40.

Lakens, D. and Evers, E. R. K. (2014). Sailing from the seas of chaos into the corridor of sta- bility practical recommendations to increase the informational value of studies. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9(3):278-292.

Lasalvia, A., Bonetto, C., Malchiodi, F., Salvi, G., Parabiaghi, A., Tansella, M., and Rug- geri, M. (2005). Listening to patients' needs to improve their subjective quality of life. Psychological Medicine, 35(11):1655-1665.

Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in Group Dynamics: Concept, Method and Reality in Social Science; Social Equilibria and Social Change. Human Relations, 1(1):5-41.

Locke, E. A. (2007). The Case for Inductive Theory Building. Journal of Management, 33(6):867-890.

Luthans, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour. McGraw-Hill, Boston, 8th edition.

Lutz, M. A. and Lux, K. (1979). The challenge of humanistic economics. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park.

Martensson, M. (2000). A critical review of knowledge management as a management tool. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(3):204-216.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(13):370-396.

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. Harper & Row, New York, 2nd edition.

Maturana, H. R. and Varela, F. J. (1987). The tree of knowledge: the biological roots of human understanding. Shambhala, Boston.

Max-Neef, M. (1992). Development and human needs. In Ekins, P. and Max-Neef, M., editors, Real life Economics, pages 197-214. Routledge, London.

McGregor, J. A., Camfield, L., and Woodcock, A. (2009). Needs, wants and goals: Wellbeing, Quality of Life and public policy. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4(2):135-154.

McLeod, S. K. (2011). Knowledge of Need. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 19(2):211-230.

McLeod, S. K. (2015). Two Philosophies of Need. Polish Journal of Philosophy, 9(1):33-50.

Menger, C. (2004). Principles of Economics. Ludwig von Mises Institute, Auburn.

Moggridge, D. E. (1976). Keynes. Fontana/Collins, London.

Murray, H. (1938). Explorations in personality. Oxford University Press, New York.

Nagasundaram, M. and Bostrom, R. (1994). The Structuring of Creative Processes Using GSS: A Framework for Research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(3):87-114.

Nonaka, I., Hirose, A., and Takeda, Y. (2016). "Meso"-Foundations of Dynamic Capabilities: Team-Level Synthesis and Distributed Leadership as the Source of Dynamic Creativity. Global Strategy Journal, 6(3):168-182.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company : how Japanese com- panies create the dynamics of innovation. Oxford University Press, New York.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (2011). The Wise Leader. Harvard Business Review, 89(5):58-67.

Nonaka, I. and Toyama, R. (2005). The theory of the knowledge-creating firm: subjectivity, objectivity and synthesis. Industrial and Corporate Change, 14(3):419-436.

Nonaka, I. and Toyama, R. (2007). Strategic management as distributed practical wisdom (phronesis). Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(3):371-394.

Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., and Konno, N. (2000). SECI, Ba and leadership: A Unified Model of Dynamic Knowledge Creation. Long Range Planning, 33:5-34.

Nonaka, I. and Von Krogh, G. (2009). Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Con-troversy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory. Organization Science, 20(3):635-652.

Noor, H. M. (1998). Razi's Human Needs Theory and Its Relevance To Ethics and Economics. Humanomics, 14(1):59-96.

Open Science Collaboration (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251): aac4716-aac4716.

Patnaik, D. (2004). System Logics: Organizing Your Offerings to Solve People's Big Needs.

Design Management Review, 15(3):50-57.

Patnaik, D. and Becker, R. (1999). Needfinding: The Why and How of Uncovering People's Needs. Design Management Journal, 10(2):37-43.

Peirce, C. S. (1974). Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Peschl, M. F. and Fundneider, T. (2012). Spaces enabling game-changing and sustaining innovations: why space matters for knowledge creation and innovation. Journal of Organ- isational Transformation & Social Change, 9(1):41-61.

Pincus, J. (2004). The consequences of unmet needs: the evolving role of motivation in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 3(4):375-387.

Polanyi, M. (1958). Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Polanyi, M. (1962). Tacit knowing: Its bearing on some problems of philosophy. Reviews of Modern Physics, 34(4):601-616.

Polanyi, M. (1969). Knowing and Being: Essays. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Porter, M. (2004). Competitive strategy. Free Press, New York.

Porter, M. E. and Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2):62-77.

Reader, S. (2005). Aristotle on Necessities and Needs. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supple- ment, 57:113-136.

Rebelo, T. M. and Duarte Gomes, A. (2008). Organizational learning and the learning orga- nization. The Learning Organization, 15(4):294-308.

Recker, J. (2013). Scientific Research in Information Systems. A Beginner's Guide. Springer, Heidelberg.

Rosen, C. C., Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., Chen, Y., and Yan, M. (2014). Perceptions of Organizational Politics: A Need Satisfaction Paradigm. Organization Science, 25(4):1026-1055.

Ryan, R. and Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation. The American Psychologist, 55(1):68-78.

Ryan, R. M. and Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52:141-166.

Scharmer, C. O. (2001). Self-transcending knowledge: Sensing and organizing around emerging opportunities. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(2):137-151.

Scharmer, C. O. (2016). Theory U: Leading From The Future As It Emerges. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., Oakland, 2nd edition.

Scharmer, C. O. and Kaufer, K. (2013). Leading from the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies. Berret-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco.

Schwandt, T. A. (2000). Three epistemological stances for qualitative inquiry: Interpretivism, hermeneutics and social constructivism. In Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S., editors, Handbook of Qualitative Research, pages 189-214. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, 2nd edition.

Schweinsberg, M., Madan, N., Vianello, M., Sommer, S. A., Jordan, J., Tierney, W., Awtrey, E., Zhu, L. L., Diermeier, D., Heinze, J. E., Srinivasan, M., Tannenbaum, D., Bivolaru, E., Dana, J., Davis-Stober, C. P., du Plessis, C., Gronau, Q. F., Hafenbrack, A. C., Liao, E. Y., Ly, A., Marsman, M., Murase, T., Qureshi, I., Schaerer, M., Thornley, N., Tworek, C. M., Wagenmakers, E. J., Wong, L., Anderson, T., Bauman, C. W., Bedwell, W. L., Brescoll, V., Canavan, A., Chandler, J. J., Cheries, E., Cheryan, S., Cheung, F., Cimpian, A., Clark, M. A., Cordon, D., Cushman, F., Ditto, P. H., Donahue, T., Frick, S. E., Gamez-Djokic, M., Grady, R. H., Graham, J., Gu, J., Hahn, A., Hanson, B. E., Hartwich, N. J., Hein, K., Inbar, Y., Jiang, L., Kellogg, T., Kennedy, D. M., Legate, N., Luoma, T. P., Maibuecher, H., Meindl, P., Miles, J., Mislin, A., Molden, D. C., Motyl, M., Newman, G., Ngo, H. H., Packham, H., Ramsay, P. S., Ray, J. L., Sackett, A. M., Sellier, A. L., Sokolova,


View Item